Parmigiano-Reggiano Stock

You might call it Parmesan, but it really is Parmigiano-Reggiano, ya know. It is arguably the most popular of Italian cheeses worldwide, and rightfully so. When you tase the real deal, aged between 24 and maybe 48 months, the depth and breadth of flavor notes is stunningly good. Maybe, subconsciously, that’s why so many of us save the rinds, even if we don’t do anything with them – the stuff is so damn tasty, we just can’t bear to throw out the ‘inedible’ part. Fear not, I say, because thankfully that inedible thing is hogwash. Last spring, I wrote about stuff you can do with the rinds, but somehow, I missed making stock – time to fix that.

Real deal Parmigiano-Reggiano comes from the five provinces that are allowed to call the stuff by its proper name – Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna, and Mantua. Sorry, but anything else from somewhere else is just cheese. The outer most layer of a wheel of Parmesan Reggiano is the place where all the interaction with the outside world has occurred, while inside, that miraculous cheese matures. The rind hardens, forming a barrier to keep bad things out while allowing moisture to leave the cheese over time. When we buy it, we obviously want a reasonable ratio of rind to cheese. Don’t go too far on that, though, and definitely save rinds, because parmigiano rind stock is liquid heaven.

Parmigiano stock, made with aromatics, herbs, plenty of rinds, and simmered low and slow is the ticket. What you get will be redolent with the scent, taste, and umami powered mouth feel only Parmigiano-Regiano can provide. It is the stuff for staples like Italian wedding, white bean, or minestrone soups. Use it to cook beans low and slow and the results are truly ethereal. Freeze it in resealable ice cube trays and add it to pan sauces or veggies. Cook rice with it and prepare to swoon – no, I’m not bullshitting – it really is that good.

Best of all, it’s incredibly simple to make. There’s a lot of versions out there – This is my take on it, powered by soffritto, the legendary Italian aromatic base, with fresh herbs. Try it the way I’ve written it, then tweak your next batches to your liking, and make it truly yours.

Note: if you’re not a rind saver, you’ll find that quite a few retailers now sell them by the pound – so long as the initial quality is good, and they’ve been properly kept, you shouldn’t hesitate to buy them that way. If you do save them, refrigerated in an airtight container is fine – they’ll last for months.

Urban’s Parmigiano-Reggiano Stock

1 Gallon (16 Cups) fresh Water

1 Pound Parmigiano Rinds

1 large Sweet Onion

2 fresh Carrot

2-3 stalks Celery

6-8 fat cloves fresh Garlic

1/4 Cup Extra Virgin Olive Oil

8 sprigs fresh Oregano (2 Tablespoons dry)

6 sprigs fresh Thyme (1 Tablespoon dry)

1 Tablespoon Tasmanian Pepperberries (regular old pepper is fine, but not nearly as complex)

2 Turkish Bay Leaves (not California!)

Peel and quarter the onion, smash and peel garlic, rough chop carrots and celery.

Add the olive oil to a heavy stock pot over medium high heat, and heat through.

Add onion and carrots and fry for 2-3 minutes.

Add the garlic and celery and continue cooking, stirring occasionally, until the onion is lightly browned, about 3-4 minutes.

Add the water to the veggies and allow to heat through until the stock starts to simmer, about 6-8 minutes.

Add the all remaining ingredients and stir to incorporate.

Once the stock comes to a boil, reduce to a bare simmer, uncovered.

Simmer for at least 2 hours, and up to 4, stirring occasionally to make the sure the rinds don’t stick, and to test the strength of the stock.

When the stock smells strongly of parmigiano, is slightly cloudy, and everything other than the absolute outer hardest layer of rind has gone into solution, you’re done.

Pour the stock through a colander and send all the non-liquid stuff to compost.

If you’re finicky, you can further clarify the stock through cheesecloth, but frankly, who bother? This is good, rustic stuff in your kitchen, not something done for presentation at a white linen restaurant – live a little and let it be.

Cool stock to room temperature. Store in clean glass jars with enough headroom to not break the container when freezing, about 2”. Also do some up in ice cube trays for smaller batch fun.

Stock is fine refrigerated for 3-4 days. If you want to hold it longer than that, freeze it – it’s good there for a couple of months.

Never Toss Those Parmesan Rinds!

Let’s talk about Parmigiano-Reggiano, or more specifically, the rinds therefrom. Why? Because Monica saves them, and frankly, while you might think she’s being extra OCD, you’d be wrong. Right after she pointed out that I get most of my good ideas from her, (OK, that might be true…), she noted, ‘we pay twenty something bucks a pound for that stuff – I’m not throwing that away!’ She’s right, folks – Never toss those Parmesan rinds.

Parmigiano-Reggiano, the King of Cheese

We should probably start with a bit of definition, since there are variables out there. Parmigiano-Reggiano is a cows milk Italian hard cheese. If it’s to be called P-R, then it has to have aged for at least 2 years before you got it, (and sometimes longer – Stravecchio is 3 years old, and stravecchiones is a 4 year old). Real deal Parmigiano-Reggiano comes only from Parma, Bologna, Mantua, or Modena, and the words ‘Parmigiano-Reggiano’ are clearly stenciled onto the outer rind of each wheel of cheese. That P-R name, as well as the anglicized version, ‘Parmesan,’ are protected turf across Europe, per Italian DOC (Denominazione di Origine Controllata) laws. 

Parmigiano-Reggiano aging

Here in the U.S., Parmesan does not enjoy that protected status, so it can come from just about anywhere. That’s not to say that all non Parmigiano-Reggiano is crap – There are some American makers creating very good cheese indeed. One caveat though – Don’t ever buy anything labeled Parmesan that’s already been grated – That’s like buying your coffee pre-ground, and it’s a major no no – it’s virtually guaranteed that the expected depth and intensity of flavor will not be there.

Real deal Parmigiano-Reggiano rinds - Never toss ‘em!

Since we’re talking cooking with rinds here, no genuine Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese that I’m aware of has a waxed rind, but some other Parmesan varieties do, so caveat coquus, (cooks beware, I think…) It’s easy to tell if a rind is waxed or not, just scrape it with a paring knife if you can’t tell by sight alone.

As for those genuine rinds, I assure you, they’re 100% edible. If you’ve got a really fine grater plate, or a micro plane, you have all you need to enjoy them. Fact is, all the stuff you dig about Parmigiano-Reggiano is intensified in that crustal zone – The umami, the intensely savory flavor notes, the whole shebang – so wasting that really is criminal, let alone costly.

The simplest, and some of the most deliciously effective uses for P-R rinds is to toss a couple or three into any low and slow dish you think might benefit. Everything from all day bolognese and minestrone, to stew or house made stock will benefit greatly. The rinds will soften and release that legendary flavor profile slowly but surely. You can toss the rinds after you’ve used them in this manner, or give them a nosh, as you please, (they’re still edible of course, but they do get pretty played out after hours of work like that). Oh, and your kitchen will smell fabulous when you do this, too.

A rind or two in a pot of rice, wild rice, or beans will work its magic there as well. Again, it’ll bring a notable boost in umami, a distinct mouth feel, as well as that amazing flavor palette, and it’s lovely.

Parmigiano-Reggiano rind oil - Heady stuff!

How about throwing a few rinds cut skinny into a jar and topping them with olive or avocado oil? You’ll get a nice, subtle taste that’s great when mixed with balsamic vinegar for a bread dip, or as a constituent of a fresh vinaigrette.

Parm-Reg rind puffs - Seriously tasty

If you don’t mind microwaves, there’s a great trick from the folks at P-R – Parmigiano-Reggiano crispy cheese rind puffs. They’re a gas to make and they are seriously heavenly little snacks. Chomp on them straight, or cut them into cubes to garnish soup, stew, or a salad.

prepping Parm-Reg rind puffs

Cut a rind or three into strips about 3/4” wide, 1/8” thick and around 3” long.

Cut a piece of parchment paper to fit the base or carousel of your microwave.

prepping Parm-Reg rind puffs

Place three pieces of rind on the parchment, and set your micro for 45 seconds on high power, (this if for a oven around 1,100 watts, so your time may vary depending on what kinda power you got).

The rinds will go through a very slick cooking process, puffing up quickly and substantially. Be careful with this stuff – Molten cheese is half velcro, half lava and it will do your skin serious harm!

Parm-Reg rind puffs - Seriously tasty

Carefully pull the parchment with rinds onboard out of the oven, then slide the rinds onto a cooling rack. 

Let them sit for a few minutes to cool out of the molten phase and firm up some.

You’re now in business – You can cut them into croutons, leave them as strips, and go wild – Be forewarned, they’re seriously addictive.

Don’t like microwaves? You can achieve pretty much the same end, albeit without the cool puffing up, by toasting rinds over a gas flame or in your broiler – They’re not quite as sexy as the puffs, but they’re every bit as delicious.

Toasted Parmesan rinds make great snacks, or croutons

If you have a gas stove, cut a hunk of rind to about 1/2” thick, and maybe 3/4” wide and a couple inches long. Spear it with a fork on the cheesy side, and gently toast it over a flame, (over, not in), until it’s nice and golden brown. 

Let them cool, then you can chow down, or cut them into croutons, etc.

If you use a broiler, place rinds cheesy side down on metal foil and cook until golden brown.

So there you go, courtesy of M, you now have a bunch of cool and delicious options for those rinds, and you’ve given your kids something new to shake their heads at when they’re rooting around in the fridge.